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River deltas that support millions of people are threatened by climate change and hydropower

Aug 30 2021 | Posted in: Research Highlight
By Sarah Cafasso
The Natural Capital Project’s Rafael Schmitt discusses hydropower planning for supporting climate resilience in the Greater Mekong Region. He has published a series of papers on the topic, including new research out this week.

Nissan Exa Canopy Furthermore 1995 Nissan 240Sx Wiring Diagram Also By 2050, it is estimated that one billion people will live less than 10 meters above sea level. Sediment is a crucial nature-based solution for combatting climate change and protecting communities. Photo credit: Qui Thinh Tran/ iStock.

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2013 Jetta Tdi Fuel Filter Rivers create hotspots for food production and livelihood support, but they are increasingly threatened by the impacts of climate change. As much as 90% of the Mekong River Delta could fall below sea level this century due to rising seas and loss of the critical sediment that maintains river beds. The implications of that shift are drastic — more than 17 million people live in the delta, where their livelihoods depend on its biodiverse rivers.

2013 Honda Accord Fuse Box New research from the Natural Capital Project’s Rafael Schmitt and Gretchen Daily shows the important role that sediment plays in climate resilience for coastal delta communities worldwide and how poorly planned hydropower dams threaten the natural flow of sediment.

Wiring Diagram 2003 Jeep Liberty Sport The Strat Blender Pot Wiring, published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, is the latest in a series of publications from Schmitt on strategic hydropower planning for greener economies. Here, he discusses how hydropower, when planned with care, can be an important stepping-stone towards a more sustainable energy system.

This is an updated adaptation of this story from June 2021.

 

Why is the connectedness of rivers so important to hydropower planning?

Three Phase 6 Lead Motor Wiring Diagram Rafael Schmitt: People depend on river waters in so many ways. Rivers provide people with drinking water, irrigation for crops, aquatic habitat and fisheries, and many important cultural benefits. They also can provide a tremendous amount of energy through hydropower.

Parts 1995 Mitsubishi 3000Gt Suspensionsteering 553Powersteering Hydropower dams can play an important role in helping developing economies transition to a cleaner energy system that also meets the needs of their people. But the environmental externalities — the side effects — of dams can be catastrophic.

2004 Honda Accord Fuel Filter Location The United States and Europe have many examples of the damaging side effects of dams, from the collapse of fisheries in the United States’ Pacific Northwest to loss of biodiversity and livelihoods in the Colorado River and Delta. These examples foreshadow what could happen in many developing countries, like those in the Greater Mekong region, if dams aren’t planned strategically.

Dsx 1048 Wiring Diagram The goal of my work is to build our understanding of the connectivity of river systems to show the benefits they provide to people. When we can highlight those benefits, we can help countries make hydropower development decisions that are smarter and more sustainable.

What is sediment and how does it provide benefits to people?

1993 Ford Taurus Headlights Sediment is the term we use for all kinds of solids that are transported by water — sand, silt, gravel and more. When water transports sediment, it defines the shape of a river channel, creating aquatic habitat and enabling people to access the water and other benefits that rivers provide.

79 El Camino Ac Wiring Sediment has traditionally been framed as a problem, because too much sediment can smother stream beds and destroy fish habitats. Such an overload of sediment is often the result of poor land management practices like large-scale agriculture and deforestation. Sediment is beneficial to people — you just need the right amount of it.

Download Wiring Diagram Schematic On Generator Control Wiring Diagram How does hydropower hinder the climate change resiliency benefits that sediment provides to people?

Diagram For 1987 Suzuki Suzuki Samurai Wiring Diagram Suzuki Samurai When you install a new hydropower dam, it creates a cascade of impacts. Fish habitats are disrupted or destroyed, natural irrigation waters are blocked, and sediment stops flowing to downstream communities.

2003 Ford Excursion Wiring Diagram For coastal communities, sediment supply is especially critical in combatting climate change. Rising sea levels and extreme storm events are constantly and increasingly eroding shorelines. It’s estimated that 680 million people live less than 10 meters above sea level. By 2050, that number is expected to rise to one billion people. If a dam cuts off the sediment supply to those coastal communities, their shores will quickly erode into the sea. Keeping natural sediment supply flowing from river basins to coasts is crucial as a nature-based solution to combat climate change. When a delta has a natural supply of sediment, it can respond to external pressures like rising sea levels on its own.

Rain Bird Esp Modular Wiring Diagram Hydropower dams often disproportionally impact communities that are already overburdened. Those communities don’t have another way to replace the lost nutrition, the lost job, and the loss of traditional fishery-related culture.

Connector T568B Wiring Diagram Get Free Image About Wiring Diagram How can countries strategically plan for hydropower development without increasing threats to communities and livelihoods?

Wiring Diagram Furthermore 1100 Honda Shadow Wiring Diagram Also Honda First, the country or region needs to determine how much hydropower they require to meet the needs of their population. Thanks to the rapid development of photovoltaic solar energy in recent years, a country that may have required 50 hydropower dams a few years ago can now invest primarily in solar and only develop five dams. Rather than the main energy source, hydropower can act as a backup for the times the sun isn’t shining, like nights and cloudy days.

Ford Falcon Fuse Box Diagram Also Australian Time Attack Gc8 Page 6 As Second, we can apply our scientific models to determine the trade-offs for each combination of energy system (e.g., a specific mix of solar and hydropower). We know we need a certain amount of hydropower, so we use numerical methods to identify combinations of dam sites which would create the least cumulative negative impacts on the environment and people while also providing enough energy.

Logic Diagram Of 1 To 8 Demultiplexer Sometimes, the answer might be not to develop new dams inside the country, but instead to import hydropower energy from somewhere else.

What’s next for your research?

Touch Switch Circuits Much research has looked at how dams influence downstream ecosystems and people, but hasn’t focused much on the upstream.

Pioneer Car Stereo Wiring Diagram 27 Pioneer Wiring Diagram When you build a dam, you need to manage the land surrounding the reservoir in addition to the reservoir itself. If too much sediment is flowing down into a dam’s reservoir, that’s going to increase operation and maintenance costs because it’s constantly filling up. Deforestation and aggressive agricultural practices can contribute to increased sediment and decreased dam efficiency.

1968 Chevelle Wiring Diagram Fuel Tank The more power you can generate from an existing dam, the less need there is for building more dams. So, how can we make current dams more effective by better managing the land around them?

Watch a short House Wiring Basics explainer of Schmitt’s work here.

 


1969 Corvette Ignition Wiring In June, Schmitt received the Aspen Institute Italia Award alongside three co-authors on a study in 1980 Corvette Wiring Diagram about strategic hydropower planning in the Mekong region.

Fender Jag Stang Wiring Diagram If you’re interested in learning more about Schmitt’s strategic hydropower work, read his papers:

  1.  R. J. P. Schmitt, N. Kittner, G. M. Kondolf, D. M. Kammen, Wiring Anderson Plug Pajero Environ. Res. Lett. 16, 054054 (2021).
  2. V. Barbarossa, R. J. P. Schmitt, M. A. J. Huijbregts, C. Zarfl, H. King, A. M. Schipper, Electrical Diagram Bmw E46. PNAS. 117, 3648–3655 (2020).
  3. R. J. P. Schmitt, S. Bizzi, A. Castelletti, J. J. Opperman, G. M. Kondolf, Wiring Fluorescent Lamp Holder. Science Advances. 5, eaaw2175 (2019).
  4. R. J. P. Schmitt, N. Kittner, G. M. Kondolf, D. M. Kammen, Audi A4 B5 Fuse Box Diagram. Nature. 569, 330 (2019).
  5. R. J. P. Schmitt, S. Bizzi, A. Castelletti, G. M. Kondolf,Chevy Fuel Pump Wiring Diagram. Nature Sustainability. 1, 96–104 (2018).

 


 

 

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